lunes, 30 de julio de 2012
Jung and Freud
Jung was thirty when he sent his work Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna. It is
notable that the first conversation between Jung and Freud lasted over 13 hours. Half a year later, the
then 50 year old Freud reciprocated by sending a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in
Zürich, which marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted more
than six years and ended shortly before World War I in May 1914, when Jung resigned as the chairman
of the International Psychoanalytical Association.
proponents of these empires like to stress, downplaying the influence these men had on each other in the
formative years of their lives. But in 1906 psychoanalysis as an institution was still in its early
developmental stages. Jung, who had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading
Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard Krafft-Ebing, professor in Vienna, now worked as a doctor under the
psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in the Burghölzli and became familiar with Freud's idea of the unconscious
through Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) and was a proponent of the new "psycho-analysis".
At the time, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. The Burghölzli was a
renowned psychiatric clinic in Zürich at which Jung was an up-and-coming young doctor.
In 1908, Jung became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and
Psychopathological Research. The following year, Jung traveled with Freud and Sandor Ferenczi to the
U.S. to spread the news of psychoanalysis and in 1910, Jung became chairman for life of the
International Psychoanalytical Association. While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der
Libido (Symbols of Transformation), tensions grew between Freud and himself, due in a large part to
their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion.
In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his
colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen without paying him a visit in nearby Zürich, an incident
Jung referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the U.S.A. and
gave the Fordham lectures, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis, and while they
contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the nature of libido, they represent largely a
"psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory Jung became famous for in the following decades.
In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meeting among prominent colleagues to discuss
psychoanalytical journals. At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed
his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While Jung spoke, Freud
suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch.
Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International
Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and
the extroverted type, in analytical psychology. This constituted the introduction of some of the key
concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century.
In the following years Jung experienced considerable isolation in his professional life, exacerbated
through World War I. His Seven Sermons to the Dead (1917) reprinted in his autobiography Memories,
Dreams, Reflections can also be read as expression of the psychological conflicts which beset Jung
around the age of forty after the break with Freud.
Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung
saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. According to Jung
(though not according to Freud), Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed
emotions and desires. Jung believed that the unconscious also had a creative capacity, that the collective
unconscious of archetypes and images which made up the human psyche was processed and renewed
within the unconscious (one might find similarity with the ideas of French philosopher Felix Guattari, who wrote several books with Gilles Deleuze and once stated 'The unconscious is a factory, not a